Neural interfaces of the future will be used to treat a wide range of diseases for which there is no cure, ranging from sensory and motor degeneration to psychiatric disorders. Yet present-day neural interfaces remain crude compared to the neural circuits in which they are embedded. Our goal is to develop the next generation of neural interfaces that match the resolution and performance of the biological circuitry. We will focus on two signature efforts to spearhead the necessary advances: high-density wire bundles for electrical recording and stimulation, and analog and digital bi-directional retinal prostheses for restoration of vision. In the process of assembling the people to achieve these goals, we will develop an interdisciplinary research and training environment to place Stanford as a global leader in neurotechnology.