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A major challenge in understanding the brain is the spatiotemporal dilemma of neuroengineering: many important brain functions and cognitive processes occur in multiple regions and depths of the whole brain over months and years, but involve cellular electrophysiological changes that have to be quantified on the millisecond and micrometer scales of individual neurons. In this talk, I will present three strategies to address this major challenge in neuroengineering:
1) A near-infrared light-based in-vivo brain imaging technique ('NIR-II fluorescence imaging') through intact scalp and skull;
2) A new form of nanoelectronics ('tissue-like electronics') that resembles the neural tissue and can be delivered in the brain and the eye by syringe injection like pharmaceuticals for chronic recording of single-unit activity;
3) A minimally invasive neuromodulation interface ('sono-optogenetics) employing brain-penetrant ultrasound to produce localized light sources anytime and anywhere in the brain for neuron-type specific optogenetic stimulation through intact scalp and skull.
 Sono-optogenetics facilitated by a circulationdelivered rechargeable light source for minimally invasive optogenetics
 A method for single-neuron chronic recording from the retina in awake mice